China Changsha City:
Population: 5.71 million
Urban Population: 1.63 million
Area: 11,818 sq km
Nationalities: Han, Hui, Manchu, and Mongolian
Neighboring Areas: Jiangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Sichuan, and Hubei provinces; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Physical Features: high in the south and west and low in the north and east with the Xiang River running through the city from south to north; 296-meter-high Mt.Yuelu in the west and Liuyanghe River and Ladaohe River east
located at 11153' - 1145' east longitude and 2751' - 2840' north latitude; situated in the east and central part of Hunan and the lower reaches of Xiang River
The four seasons is obvious and acceptable in Changsha. Rainy and wet, the temperature increases rapidly and is changeful in Spring. Summer is long and broiling, which has unbalanced rainfall. Comfortable and abundant sunlight that you can enjoy is in Autumn. In Winter it is nearly rainless and not very cold.
Average Temperature: 17.5C annually and 4.6C in January and 28.6C in July
Rainfall: annual average of 1378mm
Mountains: Mt. Yuelu
Rivers: Xiangjang River, Liuyanghe River and Ladaohe River
Products: rice, tea, cotton, tobacco, hemp and timber
Local Highlights: Xiangxiu embroidery, earthenware and delicious local snacks
Originally called Qingyanag, Changsha's history dates back to the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periods (770-331 B.C.). After the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty unified China the Changsha prefecture was established. Changsha was opened to foreign traders in 1904.
Changsha is rich in tourist resources because of its unique geographical location. Surrounding the city are the beautiful Yuelu Mountain, Dawei Mountain and Weishan Mountain, and the Xiangjiang River and Liuyang River flow across it. The Juzizhou scenic spot in the city is regarded as one of the eight most charming places in Hunan attracting both domestic and overseas visitors.
¡¡¡¡The rapid social and economic development in Changsha has laid the foundation for the local tourism boom. In 1998, the city realized 54.285 billion yuan of GNP, which meant it had reached its strategic goal ahead of schedule and that local residents enjoy a higher standard of living. Changsha is also among the 50 top Chinese cities in terms of general economic strength.
¡¡¡¡Being the political, economic, scientific and technological, educational, cultural and transportation center in Hunan, Changsha is quite a large place occupying land of 11,800 sq. km. With a population of 5.63 million. Changsha is among the first group of Chinese cities which were selected as famous historical and cultural cities in the country and allowed to open-up to the outside world. Thus, it has become an important city in central China enjoying the fastest economic growth and immense vitality.
¡¡¡¡A cradle of the ancient Chu and Xiang civilizations rooted in central China, Changsha was the hometown of many great figures in both ancient and modern history of China, including Qu Yuan, Jia Yi, Zhu Xi, Zeng Guofan, Mao Zedong and Liu shaoqi. The city boasts countless discoveries of historical and cultural values. For example, unearthed here was the world-famous Mawangdui Tomb of the Han Dynasty, in which a female mummy and her jewelry, which are 2,000 years old, were discovered. Recently, 170,000 bamboo sticks that were used for printing books were found in an an cient tomb in Changsha. This discovery, harking back to the period from 220 to 280, is regarded as one of the most important archaeological discoveries in China so far. Changsha is also famous for being the home of Yuelu Shuyuan (an academic institution) which was established about 1,000 years ago.
¡¡¡¡In 1998, Changsha received 25 million tourists and realized a turnover of 4.7 billion yuan This included 194,000 foreign visitors that created profits for the sector totaling $ 100 million. At present, Changsha has 44 hotels including three five-star, one four-star and eight three-star ones. The city also has 78 travel agencies operating both domestic and foreign business. Changsha has 170 popular scenic spots including five summer resorts.
¡¡¡¡In 1998, Changsha won an award as one of the Top Tourist Cities in China.
Mawangdui Han Dynasty Tomb Exhibition Hall (3.5km) Tianxin Pavilion (4km) Orange Island (4km) Yuelu Mountains (200m) Yuelu Academy.
Changsha-Liuyang Dawei Mountains Tour (two days)
Changsha 62km Liuyang Confucius Temple.
Dwelling of Tan Sitong 10 km Liuyang-the Land of Fireworks 60km Liuyang Dawei Mountains
Tour to Former Residences of Great Men (two days)
Changsha (10km) Shaoshan (32km) Huitang Hot Spring (48km) Liu Shaoqi's Former Residence (40km) Lei Feng's Memorial Museum
Transport in Changsha:
Changsha, located in the junction of Hunan, Hubei and Jiangxi provinces, is linked to Hong Kong and Macao to the south and to Beijing to the north by the Beijing-Guangzhou Railway. It is also on the bank of the Xiangjiang River. Because of its significant geographical position, it has been listed as an important hub of transportations and one of the country's inland river port cities. It is a vital tourist transportation line in the middle southern regions.
¡¡¡¡With the rapid development of the national economy, urban transportations in Changsha have make remarkable progress, with water, land and air transportation available. The Beijing-Guangzhou Rail way linking north and south and Zhejiang-Jiangxi Railway and Hunan-Guizhou Railway linking east and west run through it. The newly built Shijiazhuang-Changsha Railway has been connected with the Zhiliu Railway line. Excursion trains to about 20 cities including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Guilin, Hangzhou and Zhangjiajie either depart from or stop in Changsha. Regular flights to 42 domestic cities and direct flights to Hong Kong are available at the Changsha Huanghua International Airport. By the end of July 1998, 29 new roads had been completed and 22 renovated or extended. Priceline offers numerous flights to and from Changsha Airport. Priceline searches thousands of airlines and flight schedules providing you convenient flight times to and from Changsha Airport. Changsha Airport is located in Changsha, China. With priceline, flying to your favorite Changsha Airport destination is a simple mouse-click away.
Name: Donglaixing Restaurant in Juzhou Hotel
Address: 1 Wuyi Xile, Changsha
Remarks: Moslem restaurant
Huo Gong Dian
Name: Huo Gong Dian
Address: 78 Pozi Street, Changsha
Remarks: time-honored restaurant in Changsha
Changsha Tianxin Fried Chickens
Name: Changsha tianxin Fried Chickens
Address: 97 Jiefang Donglu, Changsha
Remarks: Designated for tourism, serving group travelers
Revolving Restaurant on the 29th Floor of Zhongshan Grand Hotel
Name: Revolving Restaurant on the 29 th floor of Zhongshan Grand Hotel
Address: 69 Huangxing Middle Rd., Changsha City, Hunan Province
Remarks: Designated for tourism, serving group travelers.
Hunan Opera is a local drama enjoying the same reputation with Wuhan Opera and Sichuan Opera. It has high, elastic, Kun and low pitched tones. Due to its long history, Hunan Opera offers a long list of plays. Both its music and performance are full of Hunan characteristics. For 500 years since it was initiated, the opera has been welcomed by the Hunan people.
Over the past 50 years, the provincial Hunan Opera theater has made screen versions of the traditional operas worshipping the Moon, Drawing Lots for Life and Death and modern opera Ode to Teachers. They have given performances in Beijing for a dozen times and made many performance tours nationwide. In 1952, Hunan Opera artists Xu Shaoqing, Peng Linong, Yang Fupeng and Lou Yuande carried off the first, second, third and honorary prizes at the first national drama festival. In 1986, entrusted by the Ministry of Culture, they participated in the first "China Local Opera Exhibition" in Hong Kong. The theater also won the first and seventh Wenhua Prize for new plays issued by the Ministry of Culture. Wang Yongguang and Zuo Dabin respectively won Wenhua performance prize.
Changsha-based huagu opera, a small folk drama, used to be popular in 12 counties under the ancient Changsha administration, with Changsha official dialect serving as the stage language. There are five sorts of Huagu opera in Yiyang, Xihu, Ningxiang, Liling and Changsha cities, each having its distinctive artistic characteristics. Changsha huagu opera originated from folk songs and dance and underwent a three-stage development course. In the first stage, there were only the roles of female lead and a clown. The part of young men was added in the second stage. In the third stage, it developed into a multi-role drama. The theatrical companies gradually developed from seasonal or semi-professional into professional ones. The earliest huagu opera company was set up in Ningxiang during the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). By the end of Qing Dynasty, the art of Changsha huagu opera had improved, with performers also singing Hunan opera. During the Anti-Japanese War, a huagu opera team was set up in Changsha to publicize the endeavor of fighting against Japanese invaders. After the founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Changsha huagu opera developed quickly. It has three kinds of pitched tones, each having its traditional plays and performing characteristics. Changsha huagu opera is based on chuan tone. The performance featuring the parts of female lead, young men and clown has distinctive artistic characteristics. There are more than 210 traditional plays for huagu opera, of which Liuhai Cuts Firewood and Kite flying won prizes at the national level. In terms of modern operatic creation, plays of influence created during the 1950s include Sister and Sisters-in-Law and Father Luosi Buying an Ox During the 1980s, more than 100 plays won prizes.
Hunan puppet and shadow shows have a long history. They were popular in rural and urban areas as early as the Tang and Song dynasties. The Hunan Provincial Puppet and Shadow Art Theater, founded in 1956, performed for such Chinese state leaders as Mao Zedong Zhou Enlai, Dong Biwu, He Long and Chen Yi, as well as some foreign state leaders. It has visited and given performances in over 20 countries and regions including the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the former Soviet Union, France, Germany, Japan and the United States. The Puppet and shadow shows performed by the theater, having a distinctive artistic style, are known to the world for steady and precise manipulation, exquisite and lifelike performance. They have won many prizes both at home and abroad, for instance, the "Best Performance" prize at the Third International Puppet Show Festival held in Romania in 1965, the honorary prize at the Australian International Puppet Show Festival in 1983, and the Wenhua Prize for new plays in 1993 and 1997.
Liuyang ancient music was developed by the Liuyang ancient music expert Qiu Gushi in 1828. In accordance with the ancient musical system, materials used for making musical instruments are wood, stone, gold, gourd, earth, leather, silk and bamboo, which are called the eight sounds. Such instruments include stone chimes, bell chimes, Chinese windpipe, 25 stringed horizontal harp, flutes and drums. In addition, dance-hosts wore special clothes and hats. A long narrow flag with a dragon painted on it was used to conduct the orchestra. Raising the dragon flag meant the start of the music, while dropping the flag brought it to an end. After the music was developed, workers with the Confucius Temple in Qufu, Shandong went to Liuyang to study the music. In 1963, the Ministry of Culture appropriated special funds for the complete restoration and exploration of ancient music. All ancient musical instruments were provided, and amateur singers were trained in music and dancing. A book Information about Liuyang Ancient Music was compiled. The ancient musical instruments have been collected by the Hunan Provincial Museum. Scores of Liuyang Ancient Music still exist in Japan.
In Hunan, there are three well-known acrobatic performing families, among which the Chen family in Changsha is one. In the past, the folk acrobatic performance mainly referred to variety shows by artisans, juggling or sometimes a monkey show. Most variety shows belong to ordinary traditional techniques, for instance, acrobatics on a bamboo pole, jar-balancing, high-wire walking plate-spinning pagoda of bowls, and flying trident and knife, sometimes interwoven with martial arts. After the founding of the People's Republic of China, the provincial acrobatic troupe developed trick-cycling and other acrobatic programs.
Changsha Attractive points:
Changsha is the capital city of Hunan province. The city owes its prosperity and wealth largely to its location on the fertile Hunan plains on the Xiangjiang River, a region that is becoming China's most important grain producing regions.
Changsha also has a rich history: the city has been inhabited for 3000 years, and by the recordable Warring States Period (Zhan4 Guo2 Shi2 Qi1; 453-221 BC), the city had already grown up to large size.
Most part of the city is between Xiangjiang River (to the west) and Jing-guang Railway/Changsha Railway Station (to the far east of the city). The major street, Wuyi (May 1st) Road leads away from the station to the river and sparate the city into north and south.
Across the Xiangjiang is the Yuelu Park where Loving Dusk Pavilion (Ai4 Wan3 Tin2) is located. This is the spot where the youthful Mao Zedong wrote a poem in the 1920s depicting an "all-red" China, as the view from the top of the Yuelu Mountain down to Xiangjiang River in late fall.
"Wan4 Shui3 Qian1 Shan1, Chen2 Lin2 Jin4 Lan3, Man4 Jiang1 Bi4 Tou4 ..." (thousands of mountains and rivers, will all be red as the forest below, even casted into the river).