China Ningbo City:
Ningbo is an ancient port city situated in eastern Zhejiang Province at the mid?point of China's coastal sea lanes.
Ningbo, located in the middle of China's coastline and in the south of Yangtze Delta, is one of China's coastal cities to be opened to the outside world. It is divided from Shanghai by the Hangzhou Bay.
It sits at the confluence of three rivers: the Fenghua, flowing towards the north; the Yuyao, flowing east; and the Yong, where the Fenghua and Yuyao meet and empty into the East China Sea. Like Wuhan, Ningpo is split into three sections by its rivers.
Clear distinction of four seasons and moderate climate.
Ningbo has two pleasant urban parks, Zhongshan Park and Riverside Park, both in the main area of the city. Zhongshan Park was formerly the seat of the region's imperial administration. It now includes a small zoo. Riverside Park is newer, and is favored for its path along the river.
For more than 800 years, it served as a key trade outlet for Chinese silk and export porcelain. Ningbo entered the 20th century as a relatively poor, undeveloped area, long since overshadowed by the commercial pre?eminence of nearby Hangzhou and Shanghai. Large?scale construction and industrialization projects undertaken since 1949 have revitalized the town: a new harbor has been added at Zhenhai, with two docks of 3,000?ton and 10,000?ton capacities. In addition to modern shipbuilding, new industries now in-clude metallurgy, machine building, electronics, and oil refining. By the early 1980s, Ningbo's industrial output had expanded more than 32?fold over 1949 levels. The agricultural sector has achieved a high level of mechanization, with major products including grain, food oils, tea, cotton, fruits and vegetables, and, of course, fish.
Ningbo is thought to have been inhabited as early as 7,000 years ago. just south of the site of present?day Ningbo, a town named Yin was established during the Warring States Period (403?221 BC), but owing to the high salinity of both the Yuyao and Yong rivers, the location of present?day Ningbo remained uninhabitable until about the 6th century. At that time, artificial freshwater lakes were created at the base of the surrounding hills to collect water from mountain streams. Toward the end of the Tang Dynasty (618?907), a network of irrigation canals and locks was con-structed. During the Tang, production of a local variety of porcelain known as Yueyao Qingci reached its zenith, with large quantities exported throughout Asia and even as far as East Africa. After a breakwater was installed in the natural harbor in the 12th century, trade with Japan began to flourish. In 1381, under the Ming, the town's name was changed to Ningbo Fu.
japan paid for the fine ceramics and silk of Ningbo with precious gold, silver, and copper. Portugal managed to gain a virtual monopoly as "middleman" in the lucrative silk trade during the 16th century, when it established a commercial base in Ningbo (along with a settlement at Macao further south). The British East India Company also gained a short?lived foothold here during the 17th century. In 1841, Ningbo was attacked by British forces during the first Opium War. By the terms of the resulting Treaty of Nanjing, Ningbo was opened to British commerce. A British consulate was established there in 1843. The Taiping rebels occupied the city briefly in 1861.
It is linked to Hangzhou in the east by rail, and to Wenzhou in the south by road. Fishing and ship?building, which were already well?developed here by the Song Dynasty, are Ningbo's traditional activities, with a range of high?technology enterprises related to shipping and oil refining added in recent decades.
here are 225 cultural relics in Ningbo, among which the Hemudu Cultural Relics has a history of 7000 years. The Tianyi Building is the oldest book-collecting building in China.
Transport in Ningbo:
By the end of 2000, there are altogether more than 70 public traffic routes, cover a total length of 669 km; 1312 vehicles for transportation, handling capacity is 620,000 per person/time, there are 18.66 vehicles for every 10,000 people.
The cities and counties administrated by Ningbo also open up the traffic routes. Beside that, there are over 3,100 taxies in Ningbo.
Ningbo's Friendship Store is located on the second floor of the Port Station in the northeast section of town. It consists of only two rooms, but offers a good selection of imported items such as liquors, soft drinks, and cigarettes (but no film; indeed, foreign film is nowhere available in Ningbo). Zhongshan Lu is the city's main shopping area. There are free markets along the river and near the main bus stations (the South Station market is the largest).
Ningbo Attractive points:
Baoguo Temple is located in a deep and secluded valley halfway up Mt. Lingshan, 15 kilometers north of Ningbo. At 970 years of age, it is the oldest and most preserved wooden structure in South China. Baoguo Temple was originally built during the East Han Dynasty with Maofeng Mountain at its back, and flanked by Xiangbi Mountain and Shiyan Mountain.
Baoguo Temple incredible architecture has gained wide recognition. It consists of Shan Men (Mountain Gate), Tian Wang Dian (Hall of Heavenly King), and Da Dian (Grand Hall), and occupies an area of 13,000 square meters. The 970-year-old temple's Grand Buddha Hall uniquely free from birds, rats, spiders and insects. This may be due to the unique skills of the creators of the Song building, and fully demonstrates the great intelligence and creative power of the laboring people of ancient China.
There are altogether 17 exhibition halls in Baoguo Temple open to the public. In addition to the building itself, other important cultural relic exhibits on display include Emperor-conferred Longchang, Buddha statues, bronze
utensils, brick and stone sculptures, precious gifts conferred by foreign guests, a "thousand-labor bed", and the "thousand-labor sedan."
Baoguo Temple is a major historical and cultural site under state protection.
Tianyi Pavilion Library is located downtown beside the beautiful Yuehu Lake. It was built by Mr. Fan Qin, a high-ranking official equivalent to today's national defense minister, during the reign of Emperor Jia Jing's in the Ming Dynasty. Tianyi Pavilion Library is the oldest well-preserved private library in China today. It is a combination of culture, social studies, history and art. Tianyi Pavilion Museum occupies over 26,000 square meters. The overall layout is Tianyi Pavilion, Eastern Garden, The Chens' Ancestral Hall, The Qings' Branch Ancestral Hall, Calligraphy and Painting Hall and Local Chronicles Hall.
Tianyi Pavilion keeps a large collection of about 300,000 ancient books, among which 80,000 are rare copies including the woodcut copies and handwritten copies of the Song and Ming Dynasties. They are rich sources of local chronicles and imperial examinations and are precious materials for the study of history, people, social customs and habits. Tianyi Pavilion Library is called the "Book City of South China". Tianyi Pavilion is not only world famous for its
wide collection of books, but also for its unique architecture and elegant landscape.
Tianyi Pavilion Library is a major historical and cultural site under state protection, and is also one of the major symbols of Ningbo.
Tianyi Ge Library
Built in 1561, Tianyi Ge is the oldest existing 1ibrary" (literally: "place for storing books") in China. Constructed with a view to preventing fires, the structure included a water trough in front. In 1665, one of Fan Qian's descendants added the "false mountains" at the front and rear entrances, making the place even more striking. In the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the Qian Long emperor used the design of Tianyi Ge as a basis for constructing seven imperial libraries to house the "Complete Books of the Four Storehouses" (Siku Quanshu). The site fell into disrepair during the early part of this century, but in 1933 a group of private patrons restored the building and added a collection of stone calligraphy tablets from a nearby Confucian temple. There were originally more than 70,000 volumes in Tianyi Ge, but by 1949 only about a fifth of these were left. Since 1949, efforts have been made to reassemble the original collection, which by 1983 stood at about 300,000 volumes, of which at least 80,000 were rare volumes. The majority of these books are only available to scholars, but some can be seen on display in the main hall. The hall also includes an exhibition on the history of Tianyi Ge. Visitors should also note the interesting lions inside and outside of Tianyi Ge: the balls in their mouths can still be spun.
Although the present structure extends from the 14th century (1330), the pagoda was first built 800 years earlier during the Tang Dynasty. The tower is still the highest structure in Ningbo (and thus also affords the best view). It has seven "obvic,us" storeys and seven "hidden" storeys, with four more reportedly buried underground.
Widely regarded as a scenic spot for over 1,300 years, Mocon Lake has been immortalized in poetry by such famous Chinese statesmen/literati as Wang Anshi and Sima Guang. Dykes designed to resemble those of Hangzhou's West Lake now form the site of Mocon Lake Park. There is also a children's park and playground in the northeast comer. The lake is situated just east of Ningbo's hotels.
One of the oldest wooden structures south of the Yangtse River, this complex was built during the Northern Song Dynasty (1013). About 45 minutes (20 km.) north of town, the site has special appeal for travelers interested in Chinese architecture. Included is an exhibition on Chinese architecture through the centuries as well as an exhibit of photos, maps, and artefacts on Ningbo's history. Another section has a display of treasures from each period of history: inlaid wood, porcelain, bronze, pottery, and cloisonn¨¦. Unfortunately, ali descriptive information at the site is in Chinese.
The complex can be reached via a branch of bus # 11 from New River Bridge (just north of the bridge where the three rivers mect), but a taxi is much simpler. You can make a day?trip to Baoguo Si as well as to the two other main attractions in the area (in Ning County) by taxi for about Y70.
Two of the main attractions in Ningbo are actually not in Ningbo proper, but in Ning County, southeast of the city. Since they are not in the city, visitors must first acquire a travel pass from the Public Security Bureau. But the passes can be gotten en route, and the procedure only takes about five minutes. The two sites worth visiting are:
About 20 km. east of town, the Sheli ("Buddhist relic") Pagoda is the main attraction at this temple. The relic is said to have been first discovered in 281 (jin Dynasty). Legend has it that the monk who found it was looking for one of the many Sheli pagodas that the Indian ruler Ayuwang had established throughout the world. The monk was walking in the area and heard a bell ringing from underground. He sat down and prayed for three days and three nights, at which point the pagoda came surging up from beneath the ground. A temple was eventually completed on the site in 522 and named Ayuwang Temple. It has been famous ever since. The famous Tang Dynasty traveling monk, Jian Zhen, once came here to view the Sheli, which is said to contain an actual bone of Sakyamuni, the founder of Buddhism. An exhibition features artistic and Buddhist artifacts, paintings, and calligraphy, some personally executed by Chinese emperors.