China Yichang City:
3.92 million (urban population: 2.63 million)
Yichang ("Should Flourish"), in Hubei Province, is a port on the Yangtze River. The Yangtze Gorges, upstream to the east and navigable only by small vessels, make Yichang the head of navigation on the middle Yangtze River and an important point for traffic to and from adjacent Sichuan Province.
Yichang is located on the north bank of the Chang Jiang (Yangzi River), just below the Three Gorges, about 1000 km (620 miles) due west of Shanghai.
Yichang lies between the middle subtropical zone and northern subtropical zone. The climatic feature of this region is that the four seasons are clearly demarcated. Spring and autumn are longer than summer and winter. It's hot in summer and there's much rain, while it's cold in winter and there's little rain. The average temperature in autumn is higher than that in spring. In summer there are rich storms. The rainy season is June and July, which is also the hottest period.
Yichang's annual average temperature is high, up to 13.1? to 18? and its frost-free period is long. The annual precipitation is 1213.6 mm, but is reduced with the rising of the height of elevation. The average temperature in July is 24.1? to 28.8?, in January 1.7? to 6.5?. The extreme highest temperature on the record is 41.4?,and the lowest is -15.6?. The annual sunshine time is between 1542 hours and 1904 hours ,while the shortest is 1289 hours. Because there are high mountains on both sides of the river and much water at the feet of the mountains, winter is warm in the river valley area of the Xiling Gorge and the Qingjiang River. So Yichang is famous for its mild winter.
The moist climate and fertile soil in Yichang supplies an excellent environment for animals and plants.
There are green broad-leaved woods, broad-leaved mixed forest and needle leaf woods. In the river valley area ,there are palms ,camphor trees of tropical zone, and forests such as mandarin orange, tea trees of subtropical zone. In the hills and low mountain area ,rare trees like pine, the cypress ,China fir, ginkgo, dove tree and so on can be easily found. There are more than 17 million mu (1133333 hectares) land fit for planting trees. The reserve of lumber is more than 24 million m3, 48% of its land surface is covered with forest. It's one of the most important areas that produces lumber in Hubei Province. There are various local specialities in Yichang. Yichang enjoys nationwide reputation for its high-quality tea-leaves and oranges.
In Yichang there are large quantities of rare animals, birds such as Chinese sturgeon, south China tiger, snub-nosed monkey, musk deer, golden monkey and some other state protection kinds. Altogether, there are 363 kinds of land vertebrate in Yichang.
Manufactures include chemicals, textiles, paper, processed food, and cement.
Gezhouba Water Conservancy Project
Another great dam project on the Yangtze River, this dam will be a conveyance system for the "Three Gorges Project" in the future. This project has elevated the water level of the river 100 meters from the Three Gorges Dam, by 20 meters and the sea-route has been largely improved.
The Gezhouba Water Conservancy Project includes the barrage, the power plant, the ship brake, the flood discharge brake, and the fishway, etc. It is currently the largest hydropower station in China. The embankment is 2,561m long and 70m high, which controls a drainage area of 1,000,000km2 with total content of 1.58 billion steres. With 21 dynamos the hydropower station will generate 13.8 billion KWH a year.
Due to its strategic location on the main route to Sichuan Province from eastern China, Yichang was often disputed by warring factions during the times when China was politically divided. It took the name Yichang under the Qing dynasty (1644-1911), having been previously known as Yilingchun (I-ling Ch¨¹n) or Shanzhou (Shan Chou). Being made a treaty port in 1877 brought considerable foreign trade to Yichang. A railroad from Hankou to Chongqing via Yichang was begun in 1914, but was only partially completed before being abandoned in the political chaos of 1915. To this day, Yichang is only on a spur line of the railroad that runs from Xiangfan south to Hunan Province.
In 1940 Yichang was captured by the Japanese, which marked the furthest penetration of the invaders during the Sino-Japanese War. By the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, Yichang's commerce was ruined, but shipping began to recover in the 1950s, and extensive industrialization has since taken place, with important food-processing and chemical industries now present. A huge boom is now taking place with the construction of the Three Gorges Dam only 40 km (25 miles) upstream at Sandouping.
Transportation and communication in Yichang are developing rapidly. Yichang arterial highways extend to every corner, No.318 National Highway crosses the whole Yichang City, through which you may reach Shanghai in the east and Tibet in the west. "The Golden Water Route" of the Yangtze runs through Yichang and it reaches Wanzhou City, Chongqing City in the west and Wuhan City, Shanghai City in the east. The express from Yichang to Wuhan, Beijing, Xi'an and the railway from Yichang to Zhenzhou City, Wuxi City, Huaihua City, Guangzhou City were put into use long ago and an international railway container transport network was also established. Air transport conditions are advantageous. Yichang civil airliners can fly to China's 23 large and middle cities, such as Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen. The international temporary air-liners was opened, too.
Yichang's tourism sceneries merges natural scenery, man-made scenery, scenic spots, historical sites and modern architectures into an integral combination and it is one of the eleven key tourist cities in China. Nowadays, over 350 scenic spots are open to the public. Among them, over 100 spots have good reputations.
Yichang holds the "Three Gorges International Tourism Festival" once every year. It aims at developing the Three Gorges regional tourism, communicating with merchants at home and abroad, enhancing foreign guests to know better of Yichang and the Three Gorges.
The cool shrimp, however, is not really shrimp at all . It is something made of rice milk and mixed with red sugar water. It gained its name for its appearance which looks like shrimp swimming in the water, fragrant and tender, yet tastes cool. It is a best summer drink which will always tempt foreigners for a try.
Fried Turnip Dumpling
The Fried Turnip Dumpling is one of Yichang's most famous flavors, mainly using the raw material of rice, soybean and turnip. It is in shape of a half-moon, golden and slightly brown in color outside, yet aromatic, tasty and tender inside.
Steamed Bingliang Cake
The Steamed Bingliang Cake looks snow-white in color, fine and smooth in appearance. It becomes soft ,sticky in the mouth, flavorful to the nose. It is a best summer dessert.
There is a special dessert called Dingding Cake. It is made of rice power, glutinous rice power and red sugar, bright in color, sweet and fragrant. It is most favourable to the old people and children.
Three Gorges Pearl Soup
The Three Gorges pearl soup is made from the thought of the grand view of the Xiling Gorge. The egg white is made in shape of the mountains and floats on the chicken-soup. There are also fish balls of three colors which represent the pearl float between the mountains and the fish used must be of the variety which are produced in the Nanjingguan belt. It is really a beautiful picture which will please your eye very much and also tasty to the mouth.The fish is tender inside and the soup is fat but not greasy. It has been listed as one of the famous dishes of Hubei style cuisine.
Yichang has a long history of citrus cultivation, as long as 2000 years. Thanks to its good climate, it supplies an excellent environment for citrus growing. Citrus acreage in Yichang today is over 200 thousand mu (13333 hectares).The annual citrus production reaches 200 thousand tons ,which is unsurpassed in Hubei Province. Yichang citrus fruit is of high quality with unique flavor. There are a great number of excellent citrus varieties in Yichang, such as the navel orange, one of the most famous , which is big and seedless .And the peel is thin and colorful and flesh is juicy and crispy with fragrance. Today the structure for citrus varieties are further optimized. Early maturing, mid-season, and late season varieties are all available. Tangerines, oranges and pomeloes are available. In the meantime, ecological and non-pollution culture are greatly encouraged. The citrus quality is obviously improved . Yichang was regarded as Hometown for Early Maturing Citrus. Its citrus products are exported to many foreign countries such as America,Canada, Australia each year.
Yichang Honey Tangerine
A new species selected and developed from the bud of Jing-Cheng Orange. The peel of Yichang Honey Tangerine is thin and smooth, in reddish-orange color. The flesh is tender and juicy with adequate flavor. It is of high quality. The tangerine matures in mid-December and its main production area is Taipingxi in Sandouping, Yichang . It has won the Science & Technology Achievement Award of Hubei Province.
The peel of Taoyecheng orange is smooth, in reddish-orange color, thin and easy to be removed. Its flesh is sweet and crispy with fragrance. It has gained Excellent Product awards from the Department of Agriculture many times; In addition it has received the Gold Award and National Famous-Brand Product from the Agriculture Exposition.
There are many wild grown species in Yichang and particularly, the Chinese gooseberry is the best. Sweet and sour , abundant with juicy and full-body fragrance .it contains many kinds of vitamins and proteins as well as essential minerals that human being needs such as calcium , phosphorus, magnesium, iron and pectin. It is good raw material for food enterprise to produce series of gooseberry wines and other products with gooseberry-flavor. The Zigui-produced Chinese gooseberry cans are sold to all part of China.
Baihua(White Blossom) Peach
It is also called Zigui Baihua Peach. Both of its petal and peel are in white color, this is why people call it Baihua (White Blossom ) Peach. It becomes ripe in June and its pulp looks snow white or bright green with fragrance and good quality. The canned Baihua Peach sells quite good inside and outside Hubei Province.
Yichang is especially rich in folk music and folk dances. There are 8 kinds of folk songs, such as "Mountain Songs"," Field Songs", "Lantern Tune", etc. The minority Tujia people are particularly good at traditional ensemble of Chinese wind and percussion instruments performances. There are a lot of instruments, such as horn, flute, trumpet, gong and plucked instruments. Besides these, there are three kinds of instruments which have national features. They are Muye, Local PiPa and Dongdongkui. The folk dances are Tiaopi Dances, Dihuagu, Huaguzi, etc. Wufeng Folk Culture in Hubei Province is the most important part of the whole nation's culture. There are a lot of fairy tales. Depei is denominated "National Treasure" by China Association for the Study Folk Literature.
Yichang Attractive points:
Urban Scenic Spots
This Binjiang (Riverside) Park
It lies along the Yangtze riverside of Yichang. The Park was completed and opened on April,1983,It is also called a Jade Corridor. Some people call it "Yichang's Waitan (beach)".It is 3333 metres long and 60 metres wide.There are a famous pavilion called Zhenjiangge (Conquer the Yangtze) ,a statue of Qu Yuan, Double Pavilion Square, the Cedar Hill, Nanxie (Southern Waterside) Pavilion and Feiquan Pavilion in it. Zhenjiangge has been rebuilt and it includes models of the Three Gorges Dam and a giant fresco "Ancient Yichang". Every year a large-scale flower show of Chinese roses is held in Nanxie and it attracts large quantities of flow fans from all corners. There are more than 60,000 plants in it and the lawn is 50 thousand square metres. It's a quiet place for a good rest and exchanges of all hobbies. The long riverside is always a natural bathing beach for swimmers both in summer and winter.
Its original name is Xiling Park which lies in the center of Yichang City. It's the children's paradise and folks' recreation place with its hills and water. Three gates of the Park form a shape of a triangle leading to the center of the city, the coach station and railway station respectively. The main gate lies in the crossing place of Zhongshan Road and Peixin Road. In the Park, there are a sports relaxation room with a skating court, a zoo, a distorted mirrors hall, etc. There are also many proportional emulational well-known buildings, such as the Great Wall, the First Customs, and Tiananmen Square. There is a lotus lake for sight-seeing and a lake for boating.
It's also called Dongshan Park, close to Yichang Railway Station. On the top of the hill, there is a monument to the revolutionary martyrs. Behind it, there is a grave of revolutionary martyrs. Fifty thousand trees of pine, orange, China fir, and cypress grow here. Under the monument, there is a children's paradise, a man-made lake, a central lake pavilion, and the former plane of Song Meiling's. People can enjoy power-operated "plane", "train", "boat", and "adventure in torrent". The martyrs' Mausoleum, the Riverside Park and the Children's Park form three garden districts in Yichang City. The martyrs' Mausoleum is located at the highest place where people can get a bird's view of the central city.
May Day Square
The May Day (Wuyi) Square lies in Wujiagang District, the eastern gate of Yichang City. It was built in April,1987,and covers the area of about 20 thousand square metres. An aluminium-made tablet of "A Gate of the Three Gorges" has become a symbol of the new Yichang City. At the gate of the Square four Chinese characters "Wuyi Square" was written on the stele which was inscribed by Peng Zhen, former chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of China. Two large frescos "Yichang Style and Features" and "Three Gorges Scenery" stand at the entrance of the square. "A Pearl in the Gorge's Mouth" consists of a poll, a pearl and three pieces of aluminium. The pearl symbolizes Yichang's development, and the three pieces of aluminium symbolize the Three Gorges. Below the pearl, there are two storeys of waterfall and a hexagonal pool. There are 500 colorful light in the pool,650 water columns dance to the music. The square is surrounded by orange trees and lawns, it is an open street square.
Chinese sturgeon is a kind of large and rare economic fish which is called a live fossil. It could have originated from ancient fish living in the dinosaur age. In 1981,when the Gezhouba Dam was built, the passage to the Jinshan River, the habitual breeding ground of the fish, was blocked. Scientists of Gezhouba Engineering Bureau and the aquatic products department of Yichang City worked together to build a base for China Sturgeon to breed. They succeeded. It's an efficient way of protecting and developing Chinese sturgeon and it has become a special tourist attraction.
Sanyou (Three-Visitor's) Cave
It lies between Xiling mountains on the outskirts of Yichang, 10 kilometres away from the city. It faces to Xialao Brook and its back is the Yangtze River. It is not only precious and strange, but also quiet and tastefully laid out.
A story says that, in 819 D.C., Yuanhe 19th year of the Tang Dynasty, the great poet Bai Juyi and his younger brother came cross another great poet Yuan Zhen. The three visited the cave together and they played there for the whole night. They said again and again that there was no place better than this fairy cave. Then Bai Juyi wrote the "Preface" to the cave. Thus the cave gained the name after the three poet travelers.
This is the early three visitors. After that the Three-Visitor's Cave spread its beauty. In 1137 (the Song Dynasty), literary giants Su Xun, Su Shi, and Su Zhe visited the cave. Each of them wrote a poem carved on the stone walls. These three visitors are called the late three visitors. From then on, the cave had greater reputation.
Besides numerous writings by famous ancient scholars on the wall of the Three Visitors' Cave, there are some relics on the top of the mountain, such as Liu Feng City, Zhang Fei's battlefield platform. The Ancient Martial Rampart, Chucai Building, the Valley Pavilion and Zhixi Pavilion were rebuilt ones. Climbing up the building and looking to the west, one can take in the scenery of the Xiling Gorge at a glance. Looking to the east, one can get a bird's eye view of the gigantic Gezhouba Dam. Seeing the Yangtze river flow eastwards and water connect with sky, one may easily get the feeling of "pleasure".
Yangtze Three Gorges scenery area
It is the most impressive section of the world-famous Yangtze River, the longest river in China and the third in the world. It shows the magic works of the nature with their marvelous and beautiful mountains and waters. Here you can also enjoy yourself with the charming thousand-year-long history of the region, the great ancient relics of human civilization, and the mysterious folk tales!
Two dams & Xiling Gorge scenery area
The world's largest hydropower Project ?the Three Gorges Project and the largest hydropower Project in China ?the Gezhouba Water Control Project are both built near Yichang City. The Gezhouba Dam and the Three Gorges Project Dam with the beautiful Xiling Gorge in between forms an attracting scenery area featuring nature beauty, human civilization and urban sightseeing. You can also enjoy yourself at the home of the local people and feel their warm hospitality.
The Ancient Three Kingdoms' Corridor
Yichang enjoys the reputation of "A Gate to the Three Gorges", "throat between Sichuan and Hubei". The strategic position of Yichang was important and every troop in history tried to control it. Many historic event took place here. During the Three Kingdoms period, the troops led by Cao Cao and that led by Liu Bei fought a fierce battle at Changbanpo and the State of Wu fought against the State of Shu in Yiling. You can also find the historical place where the famous Zhang Yide, general of the State of Shu, brandished his sword and broke the bridge with his loud shouting. Recommended spots: Yuquan Temple, Changbanpo, Guanling Tomb, Xiaoting Ancient Battlefield.
Qingjiang River Corridor
The Qingjiang River was called Yi(Smooth and safe) Water in ancient time. It originates in Xiaojia Pond and joins the Yangtze River in Zhicheng City extending 423 km long. It is called the mother river of the Tujia ethnic group, the origin of the ancient Ba nationality. The mountains here are lofty and rugged. The water looks green, the rocks appear fantastic and the woods are luxuriant. The climate is pleasant. It is cool in summer and warm in winter.
Shennongjia Natural Reserve Area & Poet Quan Yuan and Beauty Zhaojun's Birthplaces
This attractive scenery are composed of the hometown of the patriotic poet Quyuan, who was regarded as the first oriental great poet, the birthplace of the ancient beauty Wang Zhaojun, who made great contribution to the nation reunion and the Shennongjia natural reserve. Together they form a splendid scenic corridor including historical cultural relics, beautiful forest landscape as well as some "Natural Riddles " . Since ancient times, Shennongjia gained the fame as "Home of Wild Man". Wanna find out the secret of "Wild Man" yourself? Come here and you won't be disappointed!
Kangle Health Keeping Tourism Scenery Area
Like a pearl inserted at the mouth of the Xiling Gorge, the Kangle health keeping tourism scenery area merges the graceful natural scenery, historical culture, abundant fauna & flora, unique geographic appearance all together. From here , you can visit the Three Gorges Dam, listen to the wave of the river, enjoy yourself with beautiful flowers and also recognize the sound of birds. Want to have a try to challenge yourself ?There are the river-cross ropeway, the Three Gorges Bungee jump waiting for you .Don't miss it!
Xiaoting Ancient Battlefield
It lies beside the National Highway No.318.And it faces Jingmen mountain of Yidu City across the Yangtze river. It's the place that military strategists in ancient China strived to occupy. "The Battle of Xiaoting", "The Battle of Jiangguan" and "the Battle of Ropebridge" all happened here. Today more than one hundred scenic spots have been built, such as Chusailou Building, Entertainment Barracks, War Drum Platform, Ancient Plank Roadway, Generals' Statues of the Three Kingdoms, Yachts, spring and laser game-machine. It's a scenic area that merges travelling, shopping, relaxation, dining and living into an integral whole.
Longquan (Dragon Spring) Cave
It lies in the northern peak of the Xiling Mountain, behind the mouth of the Xiling Gorge and faces to the Xialao Brook. It is close to the Three Visitor's Cave. The cave is 3.3 metres wide, more than 30 metres high and 513 metres long. One can enter the mouth of the cave through the Dragon Tongue Bridge. There are many strange stones in the cave resembling dragon's liver, dragon's lung, dragon's thorn, stony drum, jade post, stalagmites and so on. The spring gushs out green and pure water. The stalactites look like palace lanterns hanging on the ceiling. This is one of the scenery you can hardly tear yourself apart.
Baima (White Horse) Cave
Baima Cave is less than one kilometre away from the Three-Visitor's Cave. It's 1900 metres long. The entrance is on the cliff and it is so strange that there is a stream coming from the inside. Travellers have to take a boat to get in. At the beginning, the cave is quite narrow, but the deeper you get in, the wider it becomes. About 200 metres far, you will see the bank. The cave is divided into five layers which crisscross one another. On the first layer's cliff, a group of white stalacities hanging like a white horse. It is said that, this is the horse who helped Tang Seng (a famous monk in the Tang Dynasty) to go on a pilgrimage for Buddist scriptures. This resulted in the name of the White Horse Cave. The exit is on the other side of the mountain, just facing the Three-Visitor's Cave.
Changbanpo is an ancient battlefield relic of the Three Kingdoms. In the autumn of 208 A.D. during the East Han Dynasty, Cao Cao led his large land force advancing to the south. He himself pursued and attacked Liu Bei with 5,000 cavalrymen. Liu Bei couldn't resist the army.He gave up Xingye County and was defeated at Xiangyang. When he escaped to Jingshan Mountain, he was surrounded by Cao Cao. He gave up his wives and fled with his people. At the critical moment Zhao Zilong (Liu's general) found Liu Chan (Liu's son) and fought against Cao Cao's troops single-handed. He killed 50 enemy generals, and succeeded in saving Liu Chan. Cao Cao also sang high praise for Zhao. From then on, Changbanpo became a well-known place. In 1582, a monument was built with four Chinese Characters written on it, meaning "A Stately Appearance at Changbanpo", but it was robbed of by the Japanese invaders. Now the monument in Changbanpo Park was a replica made in 1945.
The Qingjiang River was called Yi (Smooth and safe) Water in ancient time. It originates from the Xiaojia Pond at the foot of Qiyue Mountains, Lichuan City, Hubei Province and joins the Yangtze River in Zhicheng City. It is 423 km long, with a drainage area of 17000 km2.Its average gradient is 51.8%.Not only is it rich in water resources, but also have attractive scenery. Especially after the Geheyan Water Control Project was completed, the Qingjiang River in Changyang became a natural lake with a lot of tiny islands. Among these the Qingjiang Three Gorges are the most famous, attracting tourists at home and abroad.
The first gorge is called Pingluo Gorge, which is situated between the Geheyan Water Control Project and the Wuluozhongli Mountain, with the total length of 10 km. Because the Qingjiang River and the Pingluo Stream joins here, it was given the name the Pingluo Gorge, which is the longest one of the Qingjiang Three Gorges. In the river, there is a long island surrounded with water, which forms a natural wild zoo.
The second gorge is called Bashan Gorge, whose ancient name was Han Pass. It winds from the east of the gorge mouth in Duzhengwan, to the west of Xiwan in Machi, with the total length of 5km. The mountains along are high and steep. In the gorge there are Chessboard Cave and Bashan Cave, in which there are a lot of wonderful stones like lion, elephant, dragon and snake.
The third gorge is Banxia Gorge, which comes from Zhaolai Stream and runs into the Dragon Pool. The total length of the Gorge is 5 km. There are two unique hills in the gorge, one is elegant, the other is magnificent, like a close couple, thus it gained the name of Banxia Gorge. Besides this, there are other very interesting scenic spots like "Three Scenes of Banxia Gorge"? the first scenes is: Thin Knife Cliff; the second is Lion Cave; the third is the Hot Spring in the Salty Pool.